1,Can Tom medical supplies any formulation?
Yes, Any formulation of customer's choice.
2,Can Tom medical supplies multiple formulations to same importer?
Yes, If imported in suitable quantities on regular basis as printing and packing are differently developed for each formulation.
3,Are samples free of cost?
Yes, If in smaller quantity after agreement of rates and sales forecast. In case of excessive quantities freight will be paid by the importers while samples will be supplied freely.
4,What is Chronic Kidney Disease?
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is:
The persistent and usually progressive reduction in glomerular filtration rate (GFR less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2), and/or
Albuminuria (more than 30mg of urinary albumin per gram of urinary creatinine)
5,Who is at Risk For Chronic Kidney Disease?
Diabetes and high blood pressure are the leading causes of kidney failure. Individuals with a family history of kidney failure are also at risk.
Chronic kidney disease may also result from:
Hereditary factors, such as polycystic kidney disease (PKD)
A direct and forceful blow to the kidneys
Prolonged consumption of some over-the-counter painkillers that combine aspirin, acetaminophen, and other medicines such as ibuprofen
The risk of kidney failure is not uniform
Relative risks compared to Whites:
African Americans 3.8 X
Native Americans 2.0 X
Asians 1.3 X
Available data also suggests that Hispanics have an increased risk as well.
Cardiovascular disease is linked to CKD
Annual mortality from CVD is increased 10 - 100 times with kidney failure
Risk of CVD is increased 1.4 - 2.05 times with creatinine >1.4 - 1.5 mg/dl
Risk of CVD is increased 1.5 - 3.5 times with microalbuminuria.
6,How Do I Test My Patients for Chronic Kidney Disease?
Use these tests to detect chronic kidney disease
In individuals with diabetes:
· "Spot" urine albumin to creatinine ratio
In others at risk:
· "Spot" urine albumin to creatinine ratio or standard dipstick Estimate GFR from serum creatinine using the MDRD prediction equation
NOTE: 24 hour urine collections are NOT needed
Simple testing is needed to detect early chronic kidney disease. Test patients with:
Diabetes once per year.
Hypertension at diagnosis and initiation of therapy-then, if normal, every 3 years.*
A family history of kidney failure every 3 years as long as the tests remain normal.*
Others at risk less frequently as long as normal.
This testing interval is opinion based. Use your discretion.
Chronic kidney disease is not being recognized or treated
Most practices screen fewer than 20% of their Medicare patients with diabetes.
Patients are referred late to a nephrologist, especially African-American men.
Less than 1/3 of people with identified CKD get an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) Inhibitor.
7,How Can I Help My Patients Slow Chronic Kidney Disease and Prevent Kidney Failure?
Prevention is possible. Early treatment can slow progression and reduce cardiovascular risk.
For patients with diabetes or hypertension and chronic kidney disease
Prescribe ACE inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker to protect kidney function.
A diuretic should usually be part of the hypertension regimen.
Keep blood pressure below 130/80 mmHg.
Advise tight glycemic control for patients with diabetes.
Provide referral for dietary counseling (Medicare will pay for nutrition counseling for CKD).
For patients with a family history of chronic kidney disease
Advise patients to take action to prevent hypertension and diabetes.
It is also important to:
Monitor and treat traditional cardiovascular risk factors, particularly smoking and hypercholesterolemia.
Refer patients to a nephrologist for an early opinion.
Team with a nephrologist once the GFR is 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 or less.
Provide on-going primary care.
8,Who Should Be Treated and What Are The Best Treatments?
Patients who should be treated for chronic kidney disease
With urine albumin/creatinine ratios more than 30mg albumin/1 gram creatinine
With urine albumin/creatinine ratios more than 300mg albumin/1 gram creatinine corresponding to about 1+ on standard dipstick
With estimated GFR less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2
Treatment for chronic kidney disease
Maintain blood pressure less than 130/80 mmHg.
Use an ACE Inhibitor or ARB.
More than one drug is usually required and diuretic should be part of the regimen.
Refer patient to a dietitian.
Continue best possible glycemic control in individuals with diabetes.
Consult a nephrologist early.
Team with them for care if GFR is less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m2.
Monitor hemoglobin and phosphorous with treatment as needed.
Treat cardiovascular risk, especially smoking and hypercholesterolemia mbt shoes.
Early Treatment Makes A Difference
9,What Can Primary Care Providers Do?
Recognize who is at risk.
Provide testing and treatment.
Encourage labs to provide and report estimated GFR and spot urine albumin/creatinine ratios.
Encourage labs to use and report estimated GFR and spot quantification of urine albumin mbt shoes .